Indian Histories, from Hairy Chin to Kills Pretty Enemy (22 Individuals) as told to Col. A. B. Welch

Indian Histories, from Hairy Chin to Kills Pretty Enemy,  22 Individuals

(Click a name to go right to their post)

 

Hairy Chin, ( … cures a man hopelessly ill from gunshot with two birds!)

Hawk Man, (Gravesite of Indian Policeeman killed during arrest of Sitting Bull)

High Reach, (We have nothing.  I am 73 years old)

His Road, (1928 Photo)

Hollow Horn Bear, (He took part in the inauguration of President Roosevelt on March 4th, 1905)

Holy Bear, (1930 Photo of Boy)

Holy Hawk Walking, (He Fomented the Minnesota Massacres of 1862)

Holy Horse, (Honored Warrior)

Hopkins, George, (World War I, France, 1918)

Horns Appearing, (Spanish-American Veteran, Cuba)

Hump, (Sub-leader of the Minniconjou, under White Swan, at Little Big Horn Fight)

Ice Bear, (One of the chiefs present at Battle of Little Big Horn.)

Ireland, Andrew,  (1939 Photo sold at Mandan RR Station)

Iron Roads & Family, (Family & Indian Scout Histories)

Iron Roads, (Is this another Iron Roads?)

Iron White Man, (Stories of the Leavenworth Expedition of 1823 against the Arikara)

Jordan, Joseph, (World War I, France, 1918, and sad tale of his Wife’s Suicide)

Kick the Bear, (Ghost Dance Medicine Man)

Kidney, (Story of his “Resurrection”)

Kill Crow, (1918 Photo)

Kills in the Water, (Tells about an 1879 Big Fight near the Canadian Border)

Kills Pretty Enemy, (1934 Photo)

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“Hairy Chin” ( … cures a man hopelessly ill from gunshot with two birds!)

Father of Crow Ghost

He wins a bet from Major McLaughlin … cures a man hopelessly ill from gunshot with two birds!

Told by Mr. & Mrs. Iron Roads, Mandan, N.D., September 21st, 1929. They called our house.  Her father was an Arikara by the name of Hairy Chin, whom Major McLaughlin induced to settle among the Sioux to teach them how to raise corn and other garden produce.  She said:

My father was known as a man who could do things with sick people.  He could cure them in four days.  One time at a dance, an Indian found another Indian with a woman whom he claimed.  He wore a blanket and had a bow and arrows under it.  He shot the man through the body where it was soft.  They took the wounded man to the military doctor.  He said, “He will die.  I cannot save him.”  Major McLaughlin also said it.  My father said, “I can make him live.”  They laughed at him for that.  The soldier doctor said he would pay $50.00 if he lived.  Major McLaughlin said so, too.  So they laid out the money.

My father had a dream one time.  That was when he was a young man.  He dreamed that some birds came.  They took him with them.  They entered the water and went deep down then.  The birds lived there.  They had some eggs.  They were on two lines of feathers, where they crossed.  These holy birds told my father that he would be a great man if he did like they hold him to do.  He promised.  So they told him then.  They showed him how to do it that way.  He knew the roots to use.  He knew how to gather them.  He knew how to do it.  He placed some of this medicine on the man, where he was wounded.  He laid the two birds on that place.  If the birds shook then, the man would get well.  If the birds stayed there without moving, he would die.  So he laid the birds on.  They shook.  My father said, “He will walk in four days.”  He did that.  They gave my father the money for that thing.  We have the birds now.  We keep them.  They always live under the water.  No on ever sees them.  They told my father how to do it.

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“Hawk Man” (Gravesite of Indian Policeeman killed during arrest of Sitting Bull)

He rode one hundred miles to the same place (Sitting Bull’s cabin) by a round-about way in twenty two hours.  He was killed by the hostiles at the arrest of Sitting Bull..

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“High Reach” (We have nothing.  I am 73 years old)

Talks to Welch, May 5-6, 1941:

“Since 1832 it has been the same.  The Catholics, Episcopals and Congregationalists came among us and told us that the way to make adjustments was to join a church and promote civilization.  That things could be accomplished through churches and Christianity.

Still it is the same.  Only we are poorer now.  Things are much worse.

In the early years we had stock and farms.  And the agents had the Indians run those farms.  During that time the Indians were more self-supporting.  Perhaps it was the good supervision and disciplining.  But we lived much better.  We had an average of eight cows to a family and many horses.

Now we have Senators and Representatives who were from other countries and I do not think they understand this country or the Indians.

We have nothing.  I am 73 years old.”

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“His Road” (1928 Photo)

Sioux Indians, Cannon Ball, N.D., November 13th, 1928:

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Right  – His Road (Ochanku Tawa),  Left  – Shoot Holy (Wakute Wakan)

 

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“Hollow Horn Bear” (He took part in the inauguration of President Roosevelt on March 4th, 1905)

Welch notes, undated:

Was a chief of a Brule band and was born in Nebraska in the spring of 1850. When but 17 years of age, he fought with his father against the Pawnee (Horse Indians from Texas) on the present site of Genoa, Neb.

In 1868 he joined a war party of Brules against the troops in Wyoming, and was in another attack where the Crow Agency is now located.

In 1870 he took part in raids upon railroad employees working on the construction of the Union Pacific Railway.

He afterwards became Captain of Indian Police at Rosebud Agency and arrested Crow Dog for the murder of Spotted Tail.  He resigned on account of ill health, it is said.

In 1889 General Crook went to the Rosebud to make some arrangements with the Indians there.  Hollow Horn Bear was appointed as speaker for the Sioux as he was an orator of unusual force and power.

He took part in the inauguration of President Roosevelt on March 4th, 1905.

At the breaking of ground of the Wanamaker Indian Memorial at Washington, he was present, and made a speech.  Soon after returning from this trip east, he died, in 1912.

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“Holy Bear” (1930 Photo of Boy)

May have been a Chippewa, since photo shows as Cass Lake, Minn.

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“Holy Hawk Walking” (He Fomented the Minnesota Massacres of 1862)

Chetan Wankan Mani  – “The Holy Hawk Walking.”   This man was a chief of the Mdewankanton Dakotah who, under his father, Little Crow, and his grandfather, Little Thunder, lived at the Indian village of Kaposia about twelve miles below the mouth of the Minnesota river and on the west bank of the Mississippi.

While drunk, he was shot and badly wounded by his brother.  On account of this trouble he always afterward tried to discourage drinking among his people and asked for a missionary, Mr. Thos. B. Williamson, to come among them.

He signed the treaty of Mendota, August 5th, 1851, by which most of the Minnesota lands were ceded under the terms to the United States, under the name of  “Ta oya te duta”  or “His people are Red.”  He used this treaty as a means of bringing the Indians to the point of uprising and the bloody scenes of 1862 were the result.

In this series of massacres over 1000 white people lost their lives and this man was the recognized leader of the hostiles.  Before the treaty of Mendota, several bands including the Kaposia band, had removed to a large reservation on the upper Minnesota, where they dwelt peaceably until they rose suddenly on August 18th, 1862.  For over 200 miles they spread themselves along the border, killing men, women and children seemingly without mercy.

Little Crow, himself, led an unsuccessful attack upon Fort Ridgely August 20th 22nd and here he was slightly wounded.  General Sibley finally routed them at Wood Lake in September that same year, and Little Crow, with several hundred of his people, fled to the protection of the prairie Sioux, who had refused to ally themselves with him in his attacks in Minnesota and upper Iowa.

The Little Crow bands scattered among the Dakotah west of the Missouri river and he and his men were “persona non grata” among them.  After several days fighting in company with a large band of Sihasapa and Hunkpapa, who were friendly towards the whites, this small band of Minnesota hostiles were finally driven across the Missouri river to the right bank, at a point not far from where Bismarck now stands.

Little Crow was killed by a settler the next year on July 3rd at a farm place north of Hutchinson, Minn., where he had ventured back.  He was, perhaps, 60 years of age and had twenty-two children by six different wives.  One of the sons (Wowinapa) was taken into Canada at the time by the wife of Little Crow and was found by Sibley’s soldiers in the spring of 1863, nearly dead from starvation, exposure and hardships.  This was somewhere north of where Jamestown, N.D. is not situated, and to the west of the James river.  It is said that he was taken care of by the soldiers until strong enough to leave.  It is said that his boy went to live among the Tetons and afterward became an influential man among them and was the father of Acy Little Crow, who is now the Asst. Farmer at Cannon Ball, but I doubt the whole story of the boy who was found on the prairie having been any relation to the Little Crow of Minnesota.

Note  – Acy Little Crow has been my interpreter several times and I know him well.

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“Holy Horse” (Honored Warrior)

Nov. 1926 notes  – An honored warrior of the Yanktonaise Isante group of the Dakotah Nation, about 80 years of age.  Fought at White Stone Battle against Gen. Sully and was captured and held a hostage at Fort Snelling by the Military Authorities.

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Hopkins, George (World War I, France, 1918)

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“Horns Appearing” (Spanish-American Veteran, Cuba)

James Horn talks to Welch, Mandan, N.D., October 1924:

“I am one half white and one half Gros Ventre.  My real name is Horns Appearing.  I have a brother named White Elk.  My father was a white man whose name was James Wicker.  He was a soldier in the 6th United States Infantry, located at Fort Stevenson, N.D., not far from old Fort Berthold.  His Indian name was Strong Arm.  My mother was Plenty Walks and her mother was Many Dances.

Bulls Eye, who is the son of a daughter of Sakakawea, is my nephew.

My mother was the daughter of Lean Bull, who was the father of Bulls Eye.

Sakakawea was captured by the Snakes one time, and then retaken by the Gros Ventre.

I have been five years in the regular United States Army.  I was First Sergeant in 1891 of Troop “L,” 1st U.S.Cavalry, Capt. Boutell was troop commander, and I was in the Cuban campaign during the Spanish-American War.  I am now 56 years old.  I am Secretary of the Gros Ventre Old Scout Society at Shell Village.

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“Hump” (Sub-leader of the Minniconjou, under White Swan, at Little Big Horn Fight)

Sub-leader of the Minniconjou, under White Swan, at Little Big Horn Fight.

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“Ice Bear”  One of the chiefs present at Battle of Little Big Horn.

One of the chiefs present at Battle of Little Big Horn.

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“Ireland, Andrew”  (1939 Photo sold at Mandan RR Station)

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“Iron Roads & Family” (Family & Indian Scout Histories)

Andrew Iron Roads talks to Welch, September 15th, 1915.

His age is 43, born soon after the Dakotah were placed upon the Standing Rock Reservation. Educated, fair English speech.  Father’s name was Pretty Shield, but when enlisted as a Scout at Fort Rice was given the name Iron Roads.  He carried mail from Fort Rice to Fort A. Lincoln.  The Ree Scouts carried the mail from Lincoln to Fort Rice and were sometimes waylaid and murdered by the Sioux, who were old enemies of the Arikaree.

“One evening there was dance at Fort Lincoln in honor of Iron Roads and a companion.  They received many presents and other good things, and while the dance was in progress in a hall down by the stables, a Ree came crying hard because his brother had been killed by the Sioux.  There was so much excitement that soon Iron Roads and his companion were left alone in the hall and Iron Road said to the other man, “We will be killed tonight if we do not go,” so they blew out the candles and stole away to the barns.  In a little while they heard the sound of a gun in the dark hall.  The Ree had returned to kill them.  They afterward saw the hole left the speeding bullet.  Andrew’s father is still alive and is a Wiceyelo or Yantonais, and his mother is Hunkpapa.  His grandfather was named Brown Blanket.”

Andrew was first given the name of his grandfather when he had collected a lot of money for an Indian Fair at Fort Yates.  He collected $2,116.00 but wrote it out as the Dakotah count: 2000116.  They thought he had done so well that he received the name as an honor.  Later he took his father’s name.

You know the Bear Butte close to Smidt? (Several miles south of Mandan on the west side of the river).  Well, the Rees were on the east side of the river on another butte which you can see.  The Cheyennes were on Bear Butte.  Some one came and gave the Rees a turtle drum and the Cheyennes a pipe.  The drum has a little buffalo in it, alive, today and it grows hair every year, which breaks the skin of the drum.  The pipe has a man’s ear tied to it.  It is a very good ear.  All right, too.  It is very holy, that pipe.  They have it and will show it to Mato Watakpe (Welch).  Keeps Eagle (Mandan Indian) has the drum yet (note: this is Holding Eagle).  An old man has the pipe  and when he dies another old man will keep it.  They gave the sacred arrow, too, to the Cheyennes.  The Crows took it away one time.” (Welch note: This sacred Turtle Shell Drum is with the Mandans and not the Arikaree).

“Crow Ghost will tell you many stories.  He knows all about them.  He is 76 years old.  He told us that there were many Rees at the Grande River once.  But not many Rees anywhere now.  Once there was a big snake came and ate them up.  There were many snakes.  Another time the bear’s people came and ate them up, too.  And the Dakotah killed a lot of them all the time, too.  Crow Ghost’s Father is Ree man and Mama is Hunkpapa, I think.  He live all time with Dakotah.”

September 8, 1933, taken at Chicago World’s Fair:

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Left to Right:  Thunder Hawk, Wise Spirit, Mrs. Wise Spirit, Eagle Staff, Mrs. Iron Roads, Mrs. Burnett of Fargo, N.D., Mrs. Thunder Hawk, Iron Roads, Thunder Hawk.

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Welch notes:

Mrs. Iron Roads, August 28th, 1933.  Taken at Chicago World’s Fair by A.B.Welch.  Living on Cannon Ball River.  Most beautiful Indian woman at Chicago World’s Fair of 1893.  Daughter of Hairy Chin.  Her girl’s name was Last Woman.  Now 60 years of age.  No photo available of World’s Fair Beauty.

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Iron Roads attempt to receive a pension for Indian Scout Enlistments:

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“Iron Roads” (Is this another Iron Roads?)

Iron Roads (Earl ‘Wyoming’ Bateman)

 No other identification on old post card….is this ‘another’ Iron Roads?

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“Iron White Man” (Stories of the Leavenworth Expedition of 1823 against the Arikara)

Crow Ghost talks about Iron White Man, September 8th, 1915:

Crow Ghost told me the story of the war with the Arikaras in 1823, in which his grandfather was a member of the Teton Allies of General Leavenworth.  We made a flag like the U.S.flag of that date, with thirteen stripes and 25 stars, 5 x 8 feet, and gave it to him on this date. 

A young woman was the interpreter (Note: Welch could speak & write Sioux languages but usually had an interpreter present when old timers spoke in order to compare stories.  The old timers could speak some English but could relate accurately only in their own tongues). 

His wife brought out the ‘holy cross’ given to his grandfather either by Leavenworth or Pilcher after the destruction of the defense of the Rees at Grand river in 1823.  It was a coppery-colored crucifix about one and one half inches high and showed much wear as the arms were almost worn away.  It appears to be authentic.

The Dakotah burned the Palani villages this side of the mouth of the Grande river.  We attacked first and it became dark.  The Palani villages had walls around them of trees standing in the ground.  The Rees went away and across the Minisosa Wakpe.  The Dakotah went after them and killed forty of them there.  Then they came back.  The big guns of the soldiers killed some more, my grandfather said.  The Dakotah got plenty of horses and much corn from the Rees there.  They were afraid of the soldiers taking the horses and corn they had gathered together so they went away into the hills where they found some more Palani.

After the soldiers went away in boats, we went back and burned the villages because the white man with us told us to.  We got a lot of things there first and found an old woman there.

 After that we kept the Arikara out of the Grand river country and lived there ourselves.

His wife then offered Mrs. Welch a beautifully painted hide but when she also admired a doeskin dress, Crow Ghost said, “If you like that dress, it is yours.”  But the dress was worth so much money that it was not accepted.  He gave me an old time buckskin coat, porcupine quill worked and long fringe, decorated with human hair representing his scalps taken.  I gave him some tobacco and the children some colored crayons for drawing, which they thought was candy and the woman ate a stick of it before I could stop her.  He also gave me a beaded belt and gauntlet cuffs, tying them on himself.  They are either Chippewa or Yanktonai design, but Chief Grass told me they were Sioux, so they are probably made by some tribe or band of the Santee, who gave them to Crow Ghost.

Crow Ghost (Kangi Wanagi) talks, summer of 1915:

My father’s name was Hairy Chin and my grandfather was named Iron White Man.  He was a very brave man and a friend of the white soldiers.  This is a story about him:

Eighty nine years ago he was a fighting man in a big battle with the Rees across the river from the mouth of the Palani Wakpe (Grande rover).  The soldiers he was fighting with gave him a flag and a holy cross to show that he was a friend and a head man among his people.  He was half Ree and half Dakotah.  He fought with these soldiers against the Rees there.  They killed many men on the ground that time.  The soldiers took men from twelve banks of the Sioux and made them soldiers.  My grandfather was the head man.  John Grass’ grandfather was one of these head men, too.  This was a great thing to do and all the people know about it.  I want you to give me a flag to remember the old one by—it is no more,  but it was kept a long time and I remember it well.  I still have the ‘holy cross.   (Note: he showed me a crucifix, evidently very old, of brass, and it was very much worn.

Crow Ghost talks about Iron White Man, raising war parties.  Strong Medicine.  1915. Interpreter—Thomas White House:

He was a chief and my father, Hairy Chin, was too.  Iron White Man was my grandfather and he was in that Ree war in that time when the soldiers came to the Grand River villagers.  Most of those Arikara got away by swimming the river.  But the Dakotas killed some of them and got lots of horses and corn at those villages there before the white man with the Dakotah has the villages burned up.

He carried the pipe around once and raised a war party against the Crows.  He takes the pipe to the man who he wants and if any one he goes to does not smoke it, he cannot raise the party.  No one can object who is not asked to go to war and to smoke.  They killed many Crows.  In one war they killed all those men of the enemy. (Note: he named nearly all the branches of the Tetons as having been in the expedition.  I think he meant the Little Big Horn fighting).

Iron White Man could make gunpowder, too.  He had a big buffalo horn, and when there was a terrible storm, he held it up high and then when he took it down there was some gunpowder in it.  Enough for forty guns.  When they shot these forty guns at the enemy, they fell unconscious and were killed easily then.

If a man has a son killed by the enemy he can raise a war party like I told you.

I never ran away from a battle time.  Once some of us were surrounded but we fought hard and the enemy went away.

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“Jordan,Joseph” (World War I, France, 1918, and sad tale of his Wife’s Suicide)

Welch Notes:

Sioux whose wife committed suicide in Soo Hotel the day we left for France.  Wound chevron on right sleeve.  Photo taken April 13, 1919.  Soldier on right not identified.

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“….A few days before the organization entrained for the eastern coast, one of my Indians asked for permission to marry and I granted his wish.  The young wife was very anxious to go to war also with her husband, even as her mother had done in the old times, but, of course, I explained that this was not permitted.  The young Indian woman was much disappointed.  As I was taking a last survey of the Armory after the Company had marched to the train, the soldier came to me and said, “Brother, you know my wife.”  “Yes,” I said, “What is it?”  “Well, she’s dead now.”  The poor girl had committed suicide because she could not go along with us.  As we were then under orders, and the train was in the yards, I was compelled to leave the body of the young wife where she lay in the care of my wife and other ladies who promised to attend the funeral.  I want to say that the great church was crowded and I have been told that there was never a sadder funeral in that city, that that for the poor Indian girl who wanted to accompany her husband to war.  The soldier was decorated with the Croix de Guerre of France and wears one silver star and five bronze stars on his service ribbon.”

 

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“Kick the Bear” (Ghost Dance Medicine Man)

 Welch notes on Ghost Dance craze:

This man was a Medicine Man among the Indians at Cheyenne Agency and was generally spoken of as Kicking Bear.

He attained considerable notoriety during the Ghost Dance craze and had a band of hostile followers.  They gave the first Ghost Dance at Sitting Bull’s camp on the Grand River upon the Standing Rock Reservation.  Sitting Bull was also present.

He was prominent in all the later hostilities during the winter of 1890 and 1891 and after Wounded Knee fight was he was held prisoner for quite a while in a military prison for these offenses.  The date of his birth and death are unknown to me.

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“Kidney” (Story of his “Resurrection”)

 Article from Washburn Leader about August 1900:

“There is the case of Kidney recited some years ago to the writer (Joe Taylor) by Charles Malnori, the veteran trader, 53 years a resident among the Gros Ventres, who knew Kidney wall and had heard him relate his wonderful journey to Spirit Land.

Up at old Fort Berthold about 40 years ago in the Gros Ventre Camp, resided an old Indian named Kidney.  Now the old man was of the complaining sort, was frequently sick, finally died and was decently laid upon the burial scaffold as was the custom in those days with pipe and bowl, bow and arrows and a bunch of corn in ear to last him on his journey to the Happy Hunting Grounds.  The wives and female relatives, as was the custom, repaired to the bier of the deceased Gros Ventre about twilight for three successive evenings and poured out their lamentations for the dead in doleful and discordant tones.

On the fourth evening the supposed dead arose and crawled down off his scaffold and was in time to surprise his family in their circle around their soup kettle.  Their astonishment was great at Kidney’s appearance.  He told them he had been to the Happy Hunting Grounds of the Gros Ventre, had seen and conversed with dead friends at the Village  – who were all alive in this new realm  – running races or playing ball   –  and were very happy.  “I was once afraid to die,”  said the Kidney, in closing his wonderful story, “but now I am only too glad to go when called.”  This was his hope repeated many times before his death, which occurred a year later.

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“Kill Crow” (1918 Photo)

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“Kills in the Water” (Tells about an 1879 Big Fight near the Canadian Border)

KILLS IN THE WATER’S STORY

He relates a war story with Welch, May 6, 1941:

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I was in six battles.  That fight in Montana was one of them.  at that fight the soldiers were scared; they fired their guns into the air; we rode over them and killed them with stone clubs.  They attacked us; we killed them quickly.

The battle I talk about was the hardest one I was in.  It was up near the line (W-Canadian) we were after game; there were Sihasapa, Hunkpapa, Itazeptcos (W-Sans Arcs); Minniconjous there toghether.  This was 1879.  We were moving camp westward; we met many enemies – they were Kange Wisasa (W-Crows) and Wasicun (W-Whites).  They were together; they attacked us then.  This fight was on Muddy Creek.  My horse was tied and became excited and wild; I had much trouble in untying him and mounting; the enemy shot at me and the place was full of arrows and bullets, but I got mounted and rode with three of my brothers.  (W-whether of not these three men were blood brothers is not known.  Perhaps Society Brothers).  Many enemy horses were war-painted with red lightning and they had red cloth tied to them.  There was a ford at this river.  Here we waited for them to charge us;  we caught them in a deep gully at the river.  We killed many of them.  We drove them then.  One of the Dakotah horses came running; it was shot in two places – one wound in each shoulder.  The rider was a Dakotah woman; who was dead there.  At last we run them like buffalo; they ran off a steep place; they did not know it was there.  The enemy had red paint on their hair in front.  We killed five of them.  The woman was the only Dakotah who was killed.  We ran them all day;  the horses gave out and some died from running too hard.  It lasted all that day.

There was one Sioux woman in the Custer Battle.  No one knows who killed Custer.  His soldiers shot into the air.  We rode into them and killed them with war clubs.  No one even knew Custer at the time.  They were attacking us and we fought them.

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“Kills Pretty Enemy” (1934 Photo)

Note on back of photo:  Hunkpapa Sioux, taken at Little Eagle, S.D.,

April 13th, 1934:

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Lean Elk

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Lean Warrior

 Welch note on photo:  Sioux Indians, Cannon Ball, N.D., November 13th, 1928

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 Little Brave

 Welch Visit to Fort Berthold, 1921:

….After walking through the ruined village we went to the grave of the Scouts to the northeast of the old site.  These grave of 102 Scouts, who served the United States Army in the early days, all lie together in a well-kept plot.  The flag flies on important days from a tall staff and each grave is marked by a U.S. headstone.

The Scouts, Little Brave, Bob Tail Bull and Bloody Knife, were all killed with Custer and their bodies were buried where found.  The stones, however, are erected at Berthold.

Later in the ceremonies, the people sung a song about Little Brave, which runs something like this:

The pinto horse came home alone.

Little Brave never came again.

They told me that Little Brave had ridden a pinto pony which, long after the fight on the Little Big Horn, came into camp from across the river and walked around, neighing and seemed to be hunting for the Indian Scout.  They treated the horse very well and never allowed anyone to ride it but a brave man after that.

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Little Crow & Holy Hawk Walking

Chetan Wankan Mani  – “The Holy Hawk Walking.”   This man was a chief of the Mdewankanton Dakotah who, under his father, Little Crow, and his grandfather, Little Thunder, lived at the Indian village of Kaposia about twelve miles below the mouth of the Minnesota river and on the west bank of the Mississippi.

While drunk, he was shot and badly wounded by his brother.  On account of this trouble he always afterward tried to discourage drinking among his people and asked for a missionary, Mr. Thos. B. Williamson, to come among them.

He signed the treaty of Mendota, August 5th, 1851, by which most of the Minnesota lands were ceded under the terms to the United States, under the name of  “Ta oya te duta”  or “His people are Red.”  He used this treaty as a means of bringing the Indians to the point of uprising and the bloody scenes of 1862 were the result.

In this series of massacres over 1000 white people lost their lives and this man was the recognized leader of the hostiles.  Before the treaty of Mendota, several bands including the Kaposia band, had removed to a large reservation on the upper Minnesota, where they dwelt peaceably until they rose suddenly on August 18th, 1862.  For over 200 miles they spread themselves along the border, killing men, women and children seemingly without mercy.

Little Crow, himself, led an unsuccessful attack upon Fort Ridgely August 20th 22nd and here he was slightly wounded.  General Sibley finally routed them at Wood Lake in September that same year, and Little Crow, with several hundred of his people, fled to the protection of the prairie Sioux, who had refused to ally themselves with him in his attacks in Minnesota and upper Iowa.

The Little Crow bands scattered among the Dakotah west of the Missouri river and he and his men were “persona non grata” among them.  After several days fighting in company with a large band of Sihasapa and Hunkpapa, who were friendly towards the whites, this small band of Minnesota hostiles were finally driven across the Missouri river to the right bank, at a point not far from where Bismarck now stands.

Little Crow was killed by a settler the next year on July 3rd at a farm place north of Hutchinson, Minn., where he had ventured back.  He was, perhaps, 60 years of age and had twenty-two children by six different wives.  One of the sons (Wowinapa) was taken into Canada at the time by the wife of Little Crow and was found by Sibley’s soldiers in the spring of 1863, nearly dead from starvation, exposure and hardships.  This was somewhere north of where Jamestown, N.D. is not situated, and to the west of the James river.  It is said that he was taken care of by the soldiers until strong enough to leave.  It is said that his boy went to live among the Tetons and afterward became an influential man among them and was the father of Acy Little Crow, who is now the Asst. Farmer at Cannon Ball, but I doubt the whole story of the boy who was found on the prairie having been any relation to the Little Crow of Minnesota.

Note  – Acy Little Crow has been my interpreter several times and I know him well.

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