Indian Histories, from Lean Elk to Pretty Hawk (31 individuals) as told to Col. A. B. Welch

 Indian Histories, from Lean Elk to Pretty Hawk, 

31 individuals

(Click a name to go right to their post)

Lean Elk, (World War I, France, 1918)

Lean Warrior, (1928 Photo at Cannon Ball)

Little Brave, (His pony survived the Little Big Horn Battle)

Little Bull, (Fort Berthold, Federated Villages, 1872)

Little Chief, Charlie, (World War I, France, 1918)

Little Crow, (Help instigate the Minnesota Massacres of 1862)

Little Crow Woman, (Chicago Worlds Fair, 1933, photo)

Little Sioux, (Custer Scout, Mail Runner, Stealer of Arikara Horses, etc.)

Lone Bear Upon the Prairie, (Earned his name by fighting off a band of Sioux)

Long Bull, (Family Military History)

Long Dog, (Family History)

Looking, (a Mandan Legend of 300+ years ago)

Looks Walking, (….He walked out ahead to look for enemies)

Low Dog, (1880 era Photo)

Many Roads, (1942 Photo)

Medicine Stone, (1939 Photo)

Mulhern, Bernie, (World War I, France, 1918)

No Two Horns, (a very close Friend of Welch, and some of his Interesting History)

Old Bull, (a Sitting Bull Headman with many stories)

One Bull, (Cousin of Sitting Bull with Many Stories)

One Horn, (Mrs. Grass talks about a Cousin she knew born in 1814)

Otter Robe, (Visit to Welch, 1928)

Owns Spotted, (Purification Ceremony for a boy)

 Joe Packineau, (Hidatsa Life in the 1830’s)

 

Mrs. Alma Parkin, (early days pioneer)

Eli Perkins, (aka Brave Bear)

Plenty Coups, (1921 photo with Marshall Foch)

Plenty Foxes, (Mandan, 1924 photo)

Poor Wolf, (Fort Berthold, 1872 photo)

Prairie Chicken, (Fort Berthold, 1872 photo)

Porcupine, (Fort Berthold, 1872 photo)

Pretty Hawk, (1911 photos)

———————————————————————————————–

Lean Elk, (World War I, France, 1918)

biog187-lean-elk-photo

———————————————————————————————–

Lean Warrior, (1928 Photo at Cannon Ball)

Welch note on photo:  Sioux Indians, Cannon Ball, N.D., November 13th, 1928

biog87-lean-warrior-photo

———————————————————————————————–

Little Brave, (His pony survived the Little Big Horn Battle)

 Welch Visit to Fort Berthold, 1921:

….After walking through the ruined village we went to the grave of the Scouts to the northeast of the old site.  These grave of 102 Scouts, who served the United States Army in the early days, all lie together in a well-kept plot.  The flag flies on important days from a tall staff and each grave is marked by a U.S. headstone.

The Scouts, Little Brave, Bob Tail Bull and Bloody Knife, were all killed with Custer and their bodies were buried where found.  The stones, however, are erected at Berthold.

Later in the ceremonies, the people sung a song about Little Brave, which runs something like this:

The pinto horse came home alone.

Little Brave never came again.

They told me that Little Brave had ridden a pinto pony which, long after the fight on the Little Big Horn, came into camp from across the river and walked around, neighing and seemed to be hunting for the Indian Scout.  They treated the horse very well and never allowed anyone to ride it but a brave man after that.

 ———————————————————————————————–

Little Bull, (Fort Berthold, Federated Villages, 1872)

Welch notes on back of photo:  Red Bear calls them Son of Red Buffalo (Cow) and Little Short Bull.  The black spots on cheeks and chins caused by red paint. Arthur Mandan (1926) said man on left was his father.

biog187-little-bull-photo

Baddger called them: SON OF RED COW and LITTLE BULL,

Mandan Warriors, 1872. Fort Berthold

 

———————————————————————————————–

Little Chief, Charlie (World War I, France, 1918)

biog187-little-chief-charlie

———————————————————————————————–

Little Crow, (Help instigate the Minnesota Massacres of 1862)

Chetan Wankan Mani  – “The Holy Hawk Walking.”   This man was a chief of the Mdewankanton Dakotah who, under his father, Little Crow, and his grandfather, Little Thunder, lived at the Indian village of Kaposia about twelve miles below the mouth of the Minnesota river and on the west bank of the Mississippi.

While drunk, he was shot and badly wounded by his brother.  On account of this trouble he always afterward tried to discourage drinking among his people and asked for a missionary, Mr. Thos. B. Williamson, to come among them.

He signed the treaty of Mendota, August 5th, 1851, by which most of the Minnesota lands were ceded under the terms to the United States, under the name of  “Ta oya te duta”  or “His people are Red.”  He used this treaty as a means of bringing the Indians to the point of uprising and the bloody scenes of 1862 were the result.

In this series of massacres over 1000 white people lost their lives and this man was the recognized leader of the hostiles.  Before the treaty of Mendota, several bands including the Kaposia band, had removed to a large reservation on the upper Minnesota, where they dwelt peaceably until they rose suddenly on August 18th, 1862.  For over 200 miles they spread themselves along the border, killing men, women and children seemingly without mercy.

Little Crow, himself, led an unsuccessful attack upon Fort Ridgely August 20th 22nd and here he was slightly wounded.  General Sibley finally routed them at Wood Lake in September that same year, and Little Crow, with several hundred of his people, fled to the protection of the prairie Sioux, who had refused to ally themselves with him in his attacks in Minnesota and upper Iowa.

The Little Crow bands scattered among the Dakotah west of the Missouri river and he and his men were “persona non grata” among them.  After several days fighting in company with a large band of Sihasapa and Hunkpapa, who were friendly towards the whites, this small band of Minnesota hostiles were finally driven across the Missouri river to the right bank, at a point not far from where Bismarck now stands.

Little Crow was killed by a settler the next year on July 3rd at a farm place north of Hutchinson, Minn., where he had ventured back.  He was, perhaps, 60 years of age and had twenty-two children by six different wives.  One of the sons (Wowinapa) was taken into Canada at the time by the wife of Little Crow and was found by Sibley’s soldiers in the spring of 1863, nearly dead from starvation, exposure and hardships.  This was somewhere north of where Jamestown, N.D. is not situated, and to the west of the James river.  It is said that he was taken care of by the soldiers until strong enough to leave.  It is said that his boy went to live among the Tetons and afterward became an influential man among them and was the father of Acy Little Crow, who is now the Asst. Farmer at Cannon Ball, but I doubt the whole story of the boy who was found on the prairie having been any relation to the Little Crow of Minnesota.

Note  – Acy Little Crow has been my interpreter several times and I know him well.

  ———————————————————————————————–

Little Crow Woman, (Chicago Worlds Fair, 1933, photo)

Welch notes on back of photo:

This is one of my ‘girls’  – please return after examination.

biog190-little-crow-woman

(Editor’s note: This photo may have been for their trip to the Chicago World’s Fair 1933)

 ———————————————————————————————–

Little Sioux, (Custer Scout, Mail Runner, Stealer of Arikara Horses, etc.)

Welch notes, undated (probably mid 1920’s):

This man was born at Fort Clark in 1857.  His first name was One Wolf.  His father was Dakotah Small Brave and his mother was an Arikara named Young Holy Woman.  He remembers a white trader who ran opposition to F.F.Gerard at Fort Clark. They called him Going-on-Side.  His store was a short distance north of the Fort Clark Village.

biog191-little-sioux

When four years old, the people left Fort Clark and went to Berthold.  He had a brother named Red Wolf and two sisters, named Young Calf Woman (White Buffalo Woman) and Young Bird Woman.  His wife was named Young Big Horn Woman.  He enlisted at Fort Lincoln on the hill in 1875.

He went with Custer (expeditions in early 1870’s) and, after his return, he went as hunter with the Northern Pacific Rwy gangs to the Yellowstone.  He killed 105 head of game that summer  – one buffalo, a few mountain sheep and antelope and the rest black tail deer.  He received $160.00 for the summer work.

He then was mail carrier from Fort Rice to Fort Lincoln at $25.00 per month and furnished his own horses.

In 1882 his uncle, Stabbed, was hunting in the Bad Lands and the Dakotah wounded him and run off his horses.  Stabbed died from the wound on the prairie and did not reach home.  The government did not allow the Indians to make war on each other at this time so the Government paid for the horse which had been killed and those run off.

Conversation with an Arikaree woman, Mandan, April, 1920 :

This woman’s man’s name was Little Sioux, Postoffice, Ree, N.E. in the Little Missouri country.

“I am glad to shake hands with you.  I have often heard about you but I never expected to see you.  Your soldier who lost his leg in the war, was a relative of mine (she means Young Hawk).  The others who went away with you are also relatives.  We sing many songs about you taking the guns away from the Germans.  I will tell them that I know you now.”

On seeing  my German Police dog, Lobo von Schloss Beresheim, she said she would like to strike it, but if she did so she would have to give a dinner to the rest of the Indians, for striking the enemy.

“My man’s name is Little Sioux.  His father was a Sioux who came to live with the Rees and took a Ree woman for his wife, so they named the boy Little Sioux for he was not all Ree.  He was a scout for Custer at Fort Lincoln before there was any houses here in Mandan, and the railroad was being built.  The Sioux were very troublesome and he had several fights with them.  They used to keep us watching for them all the time and once, when I was a little girl, they scared us pretty bad.  They rode all around us and were on every side and they made a great noise and rode fast.  They looked very strong.  Finally they were in the village and we gave them things to eat and presents and they walked among us.  The old men sat down on buffalo robes and talked and then there was no fighting and I think they made a peace that time there.”

Welch note:  These Dakotah probably extorted a lot of horses and robes from the Rees, as they were always at war until stopped by the Government.

Little Sioux came in afterward and said he was willing to strike the enemy (the dog) even if he did have to give a feast to the people.  And they both struck the dog with the edge of their hands.  He was a scout with Custer’s command on the march from Fort Lincoln to the Yellowstone, but I do not know how he got away from the fight on the Little Big Horn, probably was up at the mouth of the Big Horn with General Terry.

(Editor comment  – this conversation would appear to have been with Little Sioux’s wife, Young Big Horn Woman)

 ———————————————————————————————–

Lone Bear Upon the Prairie, (Earned his name by fighting off a band of Sioux)

biog193-lone-bear

———————————————————————————————–

Long Bull, (Family Military History)

Welch notes, May 7th, 1928:

Mato Hanska (Long Bull), a Hunkpapa, 88 years of age, called on me today.

He said that his father was named Long Bull and had served with General Miles, whom they call Mato Ogola (Bears Coat).

Black Fox (Shuakela Sapa) served with Miles at the same time as Long Bull.  They were the two men who led the hostiles under Sitting Bull into the camp of General Miles, when they decided to return from Canada and give themselves up after the Custer Affair.

———————————————————————————————–

  Long Dog, (Family History)

Welch notes, Sept. 1932:

Long Dog, the famous Arikara Chief, was a full brother of Hairy Chin, who was the father of Mrs. Iron Roads of Cannon Ball.  Long Dog married a Sioux woman, sister of Red Fox, whom I knew.  His name in Sioux is Toka Luta.

 ———————————————————————————————–

Looking, (a Mandan Legend of 300+ years ago)

Sept. 2, 1930 article from Bismarck Recorder:

biog196-looking-article

 

———————————————————————————————–

Looks Walking, (….He walked out ahead to look for enemies)

Welch notes, August 1926:

Holy Horse says, “My father was a brave man.  He was a scout for his people.  He walked out ahead to look for enemies.  He became noted as a great scout for them.  They called him Looks Walking on that account.  (i.e. Wanyaka Mani  = Look at Walking)

 ———————————————————————————————–

Low Dog, (1880 era Photo)

Sunke Kuceyena,  Oglala, written by Welch on back of photo

biog198-low-dog-photo

———————————————————————————————–

Many Roads, (1942 Photo)

biog198-many-roads-photo

———————————————————————————————–

Medicine Stone, (1939 Photo)

biog197-medicine-stone-photo

biog197-medicine-stone-description

———————————————————————————————–

Mulhern, Bernie, (World War I, France, 1918)

biog198-mulhern-photo

———————————————————————————————–

No Two Horns, (a very close Friend of Welch, and some of his Intertesting History)

 

HIS PARTICIPATION IN THE LITTLE BIG HORN FIGHT

Welch biographical notes, April 20, 1928

biog200-no-two-horns-photo

His name is No Two Horns (He Nopa Wanica, literally Horns Two Without).  He was a scout for General Custer at old Fort Abraham Lincoln in the spring of 1876.

When the expedition started, he thought the troops were procceding against his own people, so he ‘went over the hill.’

He was present with the Sioux at the battle of the Little Big Horn (Greasy Grass as the Sioux call it), and had a horse shot under him that day in June, 1876.

He was present when General Godfrey was here at the 50th Anniversary of the battle, and sun and danced for the ‘soldiers who were so brave and foolish.’”

Elk talks to Welch, Sept. 12th, 1922:

When No Two Horns was 27 his name was Red Butterfly.  He was a Scout at Fort Abraham Lincoln then.

biog200-no-two-horns-article

 

 

July 1924 Portrait

biog202-no-two-horns-portrait

His shield drawn by himself

biog201-no-two-horns-shield

Welch draws No Two Horns shield from memory

biog203-no-two-horns-war-shield

biog204-no-two-horns-van-solen

biog200a-no-two-horns-from-ft-yates-files

No Two Horns talks about World War I

biog205-no-two-horns-wwi

No Two Horns in 1939

biog206-no-two-horns-1939

A Very Old Photo

biog206-no-two-horns-old-photo

 

———————————————————————————————–

Old Bull, (a Sitting Bull Headman with many stories)

Welch notes, November 1928:

This man is one of the last living Chiefs of the Hunkpapa, and was one of Sitting Bull’s headmen.  He took part in the Ghost dances in the late 1880’s and also in the Custer Affair at Little Big Horn.  He was a hostile when Sitting Bull was killed, and escaped with Big Foot into the Bad Lands.  A few days later, he was in the battle of Wounded Knee, but escaped safely.  While visiting him at his log house at Bull Head, he told me the following story, which I asked him to paint for me.  The story is well-authenticated and the painting is an interesting example of old-time Sioux art:

biog212-old-bull-photo

“While I was away on a hunting trip, the Crows attacked the camp of my people.  They came fast.  When they left they run off a lot of good horses.  I had a sister.  She had a splendid well-trained buffalo horse.  It was a black one.  It was fast.  They took that horse.  They killed other horses.  I found that when I got back with meat.  I was mad then.  I made a vow to have revenge for that thing.  I would go to their camp.  Then attack them.  I would run off their horses.  All that would I do.  I would do that now.

“It was winter time then.  It was cold.  I carried the pipe to five of my warriors.  They smoked.  We got ready then.  We carried many moccasins.  We had wasna (pemmican).  We left the camp.  We went to the first fork of the Missouri river (where the Yellowstone empties).  Then we went for eight days up the Yellowstone (He called this river ‘Hehaka’ or ‘Elk’).  We found the camp of the Crows.  They had many horses with herders.  They were in the flat and among the timber.  It was a large camp.  We must be brave to attack them.  We watched several days.  We knew how they did then.  One night we went into their camp.  We were on foot.  We cut several horses from the lodges.  We got them going.  We drove the herd.  Many, many horses.  We drove all night and the next day without stopping.  Then we camped on the river in the trees.

“During the night  we saw them.  They were coming.  We rounded up the herd.  We went under a hill. We had a big fight that time.  Many horses were killed.  Several Crows were killed too.  We got the horses again.  The next day they came again.  We got behind rocks and little hills.  When we left our own camp a boy came with us.  He wanted to be brave.  So we allowed him to go with us.  We did not want to turn back for that thing.

“This boy was wounded with arrows in the fight.  He killed a Crow enemy on horseback.  That made it hard for us to travel fast.  We run at night.  We hid in the day time among the trees.  Sometimes behind hills.  We were riding now.  The boy was sick with his wound.  I made a travois for a mule.  I placed him on that.  After a long time we came home.  We drove many horses.  We made many gifts then.  We danced.  We gave the boy a new name.  We called him Brings Arrows.  He had two in his body.  Then after eight days he died.  This was one of my brave deeds.  All the people know about it.  I was young then.  I was strong and brave.  I remember that time well.  I made good my vow.  The men who were with me were Black Pheasant, Bear Eagle, Hunts the Enemy, Eagle Weasel, Takes Horses and the boy, Brings the Arrows.  I am Old Bull.  I have much to say.  I am Chief here.  You are my brother.”

W.S.Campbell (aka Stanley Vestal) ripped Moses Old Bull off by not paying as promised for stories

biog213-old-bull-letter-p1

 

———————————————————————————————–

One Bull, (Cousin of Sitting Bull with Many Stories)

Notes from a Friday, April 13th, 1934 conversation with Welch:

“I am 82 winters.  My father’s name was Makes Room for Him.  My father was Minniconjou.  My mother was Hunkpapa. Her name was Lady Good Plume.

Sitting Bull’s mother’s name was Her Secret Door Woman.  She is buried on the edge of a round mound-like hill, a short distance southwest of the old “Issue Corral,” which is about two miles southwest of the present Fort Yates.  His daughter, Lady Many Horses, is also buried there.  Also his sister, Pearl Woman, is buried there.

biog215-one-bull-photo

Four Horns was the name of Sitting Bull’s father (full blood brother).  In other words Four Horns and Makes Room for Him were brothers.  Four Horns was shot in the Killdeer Battle between Sioux and General Sully’s troops. Some time after the fight, his daughter cut out the lead bullet, and One Bull unwrapped it from a buckskin bag and showed it to me.  One Bull said that one man was never found after that fight  – perhaps the skull and bones recently found in the mountain gulch, was him. The report that the soldiers killed hundreds of Indian dogs is also untrue, he says.  Seems probable, too, because Indian dogs, half wild creatures, would follow the Indians or run away long before soldiers would come up within range.  Just one of “those stories.”

biog216-one-bull-standing

One Bull paraded about the dance hall during the time we were eating, loudly proclaiming that “Charging Bear is a brave soldier.  He went to war more times than one.  He is my brother. I honor him this way.”  etc.

Welch letter, dated May 10th, 1927, to P.E.Byrne, Bismarck:

Re: One Bull, Hunkpapa

Your inquiry regarding One Bull, for the information of an investigator, at hand.

I have not had time to run over all my notes on this man, but it is true that One Bull was a nephew of the Medicine Chief, Sitting Bull.  He maintained a camp of his own and his followers numbered perhaps four to six lodges.  He was a hostile dancer at the time of the fight on the Grand River, but was not present at the actual combat, as the Courier, Red Tomahawk, Sergt. Of Police, met him in the dark while on his ride from Yates to the rendezvous of the Police, the night of the 14th of Dec, 1890.  Tomahawk heard wagons at his crossing of Four Mile Creek, about ten miles from the agency, and waited;  there were four wagons belonging to the Camp of One Bull; One Bull, being on his way to the camp of Sitting Bull, where he arrived after the Police had possession; Red Tomahawk warning him not to come near as the Police were mad and would kill him to avenge the death and wounding of several of their number.

However, it is to be doubted if One Bull ever was the successor of Sitting Bull.  After the fight, the fleeing hostiles were under the leadership of Big Foot (Si Tanka) who was killed a few days later at the disgraceful affair at Wounded Knee Water Place in S.D.  One Bull is not mentioned as one of the prisoners which were later brought up to Standing Rock from S.D. Forts, and it is presumed that he actually did go to Fort Yates on Dec. 15th, 1890 and claim protection from the Agent.  I also saw Sitting Bull at Fort Randall after he was liberated, I think it was in 1882.

I will make it my interest to inquire re One Bull, and find out where, when and how he died, and the place of his burial for your information.  However, I Believe I am correct in saying that he was not a successor to his famous uncle.  152 persons came into Fort Yates within a day or two after the fight, and 78 came in from Moreau river Bad Lands within two weeks.  These were all supposed to have fled immediately after the fight.  I have the Major’s copybook or pressbook from Dec. 13 to Jan 18, 1891, with all his reports.

Welch’s “Medicine”

I had received a card from the daughter of One Bull, the only present living nephew of Sitting Bull.  The information was to the effect that One Bull had met with a serious accident and was calling for me to come to him.  So I had McKendry go with me and we started for a visit with One Bull, July 28th, 1933;

We drove to Selfridge, N.D., and then to McLaughlin, S.D., on the Standing Rock Reservation.  There after inquiries as to where he was, I picked up a Doctor who knew his place and also wanted to examine the old man.  We autoed to his house, which is on the left bank of the Grand River very near where his great uncle, Sitting Bull, was captured and killed, 1890.  However, he was at another house some distance down stream, and we forded the Grand some distance down stream.  Passed the site of the school house where Carrignan taught school and from which he sent the letter to Major McLaughlin advising him to arrest the old medicine leader as he was fitting up his horses to go to Pine Ridge, where God was to appear.  The arrest took place the next morning.

We found the old 80 year old warrior at his daughter’s house.  There was a great commotion when they recognized me.  He knew me and was very happy that I had come.  I gave him some meat and bread.  He said that he was going to die the next day and had moved close to the church for that purpose.  I told him many things about himself and he was always surprised at my statements and would ask, “How do you know that?”  I always replied, “Charging Bear’s medicine is wonderful.”  I dinned that into  his mind, and finally told him that he wasn’t going to die the next day, because my medicine was powerful and wonderful.

When I left he told me that he would not die, “that he was going to get well and walk about some more.”  His old wife gave me a pair of beaded moccasins and he gave me a war club with a loose stone head, saying that that was the same kind that he used on the soldiers at the Custer fight.  He also gave me his sun-dance eagle-bone whistle and showed me his “marks.”  These were 25 marks on each shoulder and forearm, where the flesh had been pricked up with a needle and pieces of flesh cut off with a butcher knife, as large as peas or beans  – as sacrifice to Wakantonka.  He also showed me four scars on each knee and explained that they were similar wounds.  His wife was very proud of those scars.  The old man had been chasing a team of horses which had got away from him, and fell down and struck

Welch visits One Bull, September 8th, 1936:

Today I took G.A.Thompson and Frank Everts of Bismarck, and went to Little Eagle to visit my old friends One Bull and White Bull, brothers, and the only nephews of Sitting Bull alive.  We took with us bread, a flank of meat and a kidney with its sweet fat, coffee, flour, tobacco, pears and peaches, as presents.  We drove via Flasher and McLaughlin, S.D., and, arriving at Little Eagle, we found where they were living on the right bank of the Grand River, and drove down there through the great trees and lowlands.  The river did not have a drop of water in it where we crossed it, and soon we came to the little log house of Spotted Horse, whose educated wife is the daughter of One Bull.

biog219-one-bull-1939

I heard One Bull shouting that Charging Bear was coming  – and we walked up to the entrance of their leaf-covered summer shelter, where we shook hands with both of the old men, his wife, Spotted Horse’s (Spotted Bear’s?) wife, and another woman by the name of Growler, some relation of Sitting Bull.  We smoked and then started in to talk.  The old fellows were so happy to see us, and the presents were so happily received.  They started to eat the fruit at once.  Soon, I smelled the odor of boiling meat as they started the soup kettle.  We had a wonderful visit and talk.

I learned that One Bull was freighting and that White Bull was at Eagle Butte (southward) at the time the Indian Police arrested Sitting Bull, ten miles to the west on the Grand.  However, One Bull’s wife was in S.B.’s camp that morning and fled with Big Foot after the fight, finally being corralled at Wounded Knee, a few days later.

One Bull is 84, White Bull is 87 years of age, both apparently being in good health at present.  They had quite a dispute as to how many daughters Sitting Bull had, but finally decided that there were three, one dying young, and the others later on.  His son, Crow Foot, and his adopted son, an Assiniboine (Hohe), called Little Assiniboine, were both killed at the fight when S.B. was killed.  S.B. had captured this Hohe and taken him as his own son.

I gave a blanket to One Bull and a suit of clothes to White Bull.  They brought out all the things they had used during their recent Sun Dance.  I found out that they had two wreaths of wild sage to wear on their heads; One Bull wore four red sticks in his hair, a five inch five pointed star and a half moon on his breast, and carried an eagle bone whistle with a six inch fluffy feather tied to it.  They prayed for rain to come, and the stars and moon and sun were implored to be mediums between God and themselves.  The red sticks (six inches long and as large as a lead pencil) were used to scratch themselves with during the day, as no one in the ceremony should ever touch their half-naked bodies during the day, but hold their arms close to their sides and glare at the sun all day without food or drink.  They told me that they did rest a little during the middle of the day, though.  They also dance barefooted, as the earth is the mother of men and radiations from her should come through direct to the bare skin.

One Bull told me that he had practically been raised from a boy by Sitting Bull, and that he was always s with him wherever he went.  White Bull was not with him so much as he was connected with the Minneconjous and stayed with his mother most of the time.

At last we shook hands and departed after a visit of a couple of hours  – a delightful ceremonial visit with two men who had been savages during most of their lives and both active participants in the Custer fight, and the splendid old woman of One Bull, who placed her check min and wailed with pleasure and happiness.

biog219-one-bull-and-old-bull

What a transition in their lives  – old buffalo hunters, one born in 1849, the other in 1852, hunters of human enemies, bloodthirsty and revengeful in their youth; then came the transition period when they were about 40 years of age; with the wild white soldiers and wilder hunters; then modern times with near starvation and confusion to them.

Minneapolis Aquatenniel, 1940, p.1

biog224-one-bull-fair-p1

Minneapolis Aquatenniel, 1940, p.2

biog224-one-bull-fair-p2

Minneapolis Aquatenniel, 1940, p.3

biog225-one-bull-fair-p3

Minneapolis Aquatenniel, 1940, p.4

biog225-one-bull-fair-p4

Minneapolis Aquatenniel, 1940, p.5

biog226-one-bull-fair-p5

———————————————————————————————–

One Horn, (Mrs. Grass talks about a Cousin she knew born in 1814)

Mrs. John Grass talks about her family, April 27, 1921:

My father’s name was White Swan.  He was a chief of the Miniconjou Dakotah.  We lived south of the Black Hills.  He died when I was 14 years old.  I am 69 now.  He was 52 (i.e. born in 1814).  His father’s name was White Swan, too.  He died when he was 102 years old.  He crawled around on the ground like a baby.  He was very old.

There were four chiefs of the Miniconjou.  White Swan was first; One Horn was second chief; Black Shield was third chief; Eagle Parent was fourth chief.  When I was a girl there were many tipis.  I think there were over 1000 people of the Miniconjou.

White Swan had two wives.  They were cousins of each other.  One Horn had four wives.  His father, One Horn, had ten wives.  I knew seven of them.  I never saw the others.  Maybe they were dead.  I do not know.  Black Shield had three wives.  Eagle Parent had a wife.  She ran away.  She went with another man.  Then she came back he took her back.  He did not do the right thing in this.  He was not chief any more then.  One Horn had a wife and she ran away too.  He took her back.  He was not chief after that time.  He died then.  Black Shield died too.  That way made my father the head chief of the Miniconjou.

One Horn had a large tipi.  It was twenty skins.  It had two doors in it.  The wives did not have anything special for each to do.  They all did as they wanted to.  There was a principal wife.  She was Chief of the Wives.  This man and his ten wives had two sons.  One was a cripple.  The other was named Big Foot (Si-tanka).. He was killed by the whites with the Ghost Dancers (note—he took command of the hostiles after the death of Sitting Bull, and was killed at Wounded Knee). The cripple boy died too.  They tied him in a tree.  The father, One Horn, was sorry (cante sica).  He told the people he did not want to live.  He would die.  They were afraid he would kill himself.  They took away all his knives and clubs.  He went and sat under a tree by a cliff for four nights and four days.  He did not eat.  He mourned for that cripple.  One of his wives went to him and asked him to come and eat some meat.  He said to send his Chief of the Wives to him.  She went.  She stood quite a ways off.  She was afraid.  She asked him to eat.  He said, “Come closer.”  She ran away.  After that he said that if she had come close he would have grabbed her and sprung off the cliff and both die.  After four days he came back and said he would not kill himself.  They gave him his knives.  He walked away.  He looked for buffalo.  He was alone.  He found a big black bull.  He stabbed him in the shoulder twice.  The buffalo came to fight him.  They both died there.  After the night the people thought he had killed himself.  They went out to look for him.  They found him and the bull.  They were both dead.  They took him and buried him in the tree with the cripple.

 ———————————————————————————————–

Otter Robe, (Visit to Welch, 1928)

Welch notes, September 25th, 1928

Among interesting Indians who have called upon me lately was one named Otter Robe, of Bull Head, S.D.  This man is a Hunkpapa Sioux, and I was struck by the similarity of his face with that of Chief John Grass; the same high forehead, roman nose, wide cheek bones and eyes.  With him was a man by the name of One Elk, an old Government Scout.  Both dignified Indians of the old school who just paid a ceremonial call upon me.

Otter Robe’s father was Feather in the Forehead, and his father was Shell King.

Otter Robe made a suggestion that there should be a day named to be observed with appropriate ceremonies all over the U.S., and in honor of the Indians.  School teachers could teach Indian history of local importance; preachers could make a sermon on them and the Indians, themselves, would collect at feasts and mention their great men who have gone on, and those of importance, living.

———————————————————————————————–

Owns Spotted,  (Purification Ceremony for a boy)

White Cloud talks at home of  John Cadotte, Wakpala, S.D., May 5-6, 1941:

“In 1882 I worked at the St. Elizabeth Mission with Owns Spotted.  We took the seminary course.  We were to be sent to Philadelphia for two years to complete the course.  After that, there was to be two more years in Springfield, Ohio. Both having been baptized Catholics, we could not take the Episcopal course to become preachers.  We both went in strong for stock and had many horses and cattle.”

At this point, Leo Cadotte said that White Cloud was quite a lady’s man and everyone laughed.  White Cloud played a ‘Thank You’ song on his wooden flute (which Col. Welch purchased from him!).

White Cloud continued: “Owns Spotted and I were once ordered to join the Bear Society.  We took a steam bath and were purified.  We paraded around the great camp circle, each with a knife in our hands.  No one got in our way.”

“We both belonged to the Horse Society.  We danced in that.  Aunty Cross was one of the singers.  We could go to the end of the camp and make a dash across camp.  This was training young men to count coup (or Kill the Enemy).”

“In one of these games White Cloud counted second coup.  For not being there first, his father, End of the Cloud, punished him by giving him an endurance test.  He sent me to the tope of a hill where there were many graves.  I had to stay there all night, that I might learn to be brave.  I was afraid and started home when it was quite dark, but heard an owl hooting nearby and, as it came closer, I went back up the hill.  Each time I tried to go down, the owl hooted again and followed me to the top.  I spent the night among the graves.  At daybreak I saw an object approaching.  It proved to be my father.  He had done the hooting to keep me there.”

“My father took me on another high hill—that was to get my vision.  What I wanted was to come up in years as an old man.  I have attained that.  I am 72 years old.  I kept my vigil in a circle made by four stakes put in the ground, one for each wind.  While keeping that vigil, I sacrificed, wailed and called for help.  A horse came.  My father made 50 cuts in his arms above the elbows.  I took 25 of those cuts.  Pieces of skin cut off and thrown away.  That is all.”

White Cloud also told us Good Bear, who is Carrier’s brother, makes medicine for nervous diseases.  He is also called by his medicine name…Shaking Nerves.

———————————————————————————————–

 Joe Packineau, (Hidatsa Life in the 1830’s)

His family history, told by himself at his log house, three miles from Agency, Elbowoods, Dec. 3rd, 1923:

“I am the son of Powder Horn and Plenty Sweet Grass, a Hidatsa woman.  My father was the son of a Frenchman.  My mother does not remember his name now, but his Indian name was Good Chaser.  He could run buffalo good.  My grandfather was born in Lower Canada, and married a Gros Ventre woman at the Knife River by the name of Bug Woman.  His other wife was named Goes Along the Pink and she was a sister of Bug Woman.  My father was the child of Bug Woman.  My grandfather was Good Chaser.  My mother sits over there on that bed.  She is old.  She was born at the Gros Ventre village south of the Knife River.  Stanton is there now.  They called this village ‘Hidatsa’ and the one north of the Knife they called it ‘Hidatsaahti.’  She went to St. Louis one time.  She learned to talk English there, but she has forgotten most of it now.  She shakes all the time, but she is not sick.  I want to get the doctor for her, but she will not allow that.  She says she has lived long enough now.”

I then told the old woman that I did not know she was there, so I had not brought her any present, but gave her fifty cents to buy something with.  She said, “Thank you, sir,” very plainly.  She has a great goiter on her neck and walks but little.  She was born ten years after Prince of Wied spent a winter with the Mandans (1833) a few miles south, at Fort Clark.  She is said to be the oldest living woman of the Hidatsa.

“I will tell you how my grandfather (Good Chaser) died.  He was getting ready to go to St. Louis in the fall.  He liked buffalo meat and wanted some to take along.  He said he would go after some.  The Hidatsa said, “No, you had better not go.  There are Sioux around.”  But he said he was in a big hurry and did not care anything about a few Sioux people when he wanted mean.  So he took four horses to pack with and rode a fine fast horse from St. Louis.  He went up into the Shell Creek places and killed, his horses full of meat and started back.  When go got down close to the river he saw four horsemen looking across the river at Hidatsaahti village.  He thought they were Gros Ventre and went right up to them.  They were Sioux.  He kept his meat horses together and made a fight then.  He got up close to those hills there by Dead Grass Hall place.  Then they got around him.  He was killed there.  He could have got away on his fast buffalo horse, but he would not leave his meat for those Sioux.  They cut off a small piece of his scalp.  They went to the place where they jumped him first time.  They planted a stick with four black rings around it to show how many of them there were, and tied the scalp to the tope of it.  They went away then.  But the people saw them.  They were afraid of his death then.  After four days waiting, they crossed the river and went up to this stick.  They knew then.  This stick leaned in a certain direction.  They spread out and followed that way.  They found some rocks in a line on the tope of the hill. Then they followed this direction.  They spread out and finally found him.  The ground showed a big fight.  He was cut up.  They took him down into the timber of the little gully and tied him in a tree.  They could read the whole story as it was on the ground. He died because he would not leave his four horses of meat.  The people were very sorry for they took his horses.  It is very bad to lost horses.  That’s the way my grandfather died.”

———————————————————————————————–

Mrs. Alma Parkin, (early days pioneer)

biog222-alma-parkin-news-p1

biog233-alma-parkin-news-p2

———————————————————————————————–

Eli Perkins, (aka Brave Bear)

biog13-eli-perkins

———————————————————————————————–

Plenty Coups, (1921 photo with Marshall Foch)

Plenty Coups gave his name to Marshal Foch, 1921 (see Celebrations, Marshal Foch)

biog234-plenty-coups-with-marshal-foch

———————————————————————————————–

Plenty Foxes, (Mandan, 1924 photo)

biog224-plenty-foxes

———————————————————————————————–

Poor Wolf, (Fort Berthold, 1872 photo)

biog225-poor-wolf_0

———————————————————————————————–

Prairie Chicken, (Fort Berthold, 1872 photo)

biog225-prairie-chicken_0

———————————————————————————————–

Porcupine, (Fort Berthold, 1872 photo)

biog225-porcupine_0

———————————————————————————————–

Pretty Hawk (1911 Photos)

biog235-pretty-hawk-no-1

biog236-pretty-hawk-no-2

Submit a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *