Philippines Insurrection 1898 Original Manifestos of General Otis and Aguinaldo

Printed Material pulled off public walls, newspapers, etc. by A. B. Welch during his tour of duty on Luzon, 1898-1899, with the Ist Washington Volunteers out of Camp Lewis, Washington.


United States Proclamation of Protection (General Otis)  (dated January 4, 1898 in error … should read January 4, 1899)

Emilio Aguinaldo’s Manifesto in response (in Spanish) to General Otis’ Proclamation

phil-aguinaldo-photo-standingEmilio Aguinaldo’s Manifesto (in English) called 1st Response

Emilio Aguinaldo’s Second Response (in English) (may have been issued in error and was quickly withdrawn)(document measures 24 x 8¼ and is printed on the reverse of General Otis’ Proclamation of Jan. 4, 1898).

Tagalog Manifesto by Patricia Magpayo. Tagalog document retrieved by Welch around March 1, 1899 at the height of the fighting between the Insurrectos (who had encircled Manila) and Americans.  Current internet Tagalog-English Dictionaries do not display the phrasing and most of the “out-of-use” words in the 1899 document)

United States losses …4,324 killed, 2,815 wounded   (plus 2,000 Philippine Constabulary killed or wounded).

Philippine losses … 16,000 soldiers killed   (plus 250,000 to 1,000,000 civilians killed!) 

These documents, which led to these horrible losses, should have historical value … have not been able to locate original printed versions, let alone possible reprints of the original, mis-dated United States Proclamation which someone must have corrected.  Library of Congress shows the date of Otis’ Proclamation as January 4, 1899 on reprints.



United States Proclamation of Protection (General Otis)  (dated January 4, 1898 in error … should read January 4, 1899)



Emilio Aguinaldo’s Manifesto in response (in Spanish) to General Otis’ Proclamation




Emilio Aguinaldo’s Manifesto (in English) called 1st Response…Welch notes that “this document was soaked off a wall in the hamlet of Singalong, one of our outposts.”



Emilio Aguinaldo’s Second Response (in English) (may have been issued in error and was quickly withdrawn)



Tagalog Manifesto by Patricia Magpayo 




Translation received April 29, 2014 from Researcher at National Historic Commission of the Philippines

postscript/supplement to Heraldo Filipino

Wednesday, 1st of March 1899

decisive VICTORY


If the defeat of the Spaniards gave honor to all of us and to the Mother country, the Philippines; if the recent struggle against Spain gave luster to the blood of all the martyrs and gave us recognition from all Nations, that we are capable of glorifying our homeland and cherishing reason, our straightforward response to the treachery of the Americans revealed even more our pride, honor, and clarity of reason.

Not much honor has been won by the Philippines in the valiant response of our heroes on the Saturday night, the 4th day of the previous month [4 February 1899, when the Phil-Am War began] to the surprise attack of the Americans. Meanwhile on that same night, – their flag sprinkled with stars, and insisting to show mankind that it represents all goodness in the world, – suddenly fell into the mire and is still buried there until now.

Amid the darkness of that Saturday night, the honor that the Americans have amassed for hundreds of years was buried. On the following Sunday morning, the first thing that the world witnessed was the sun’s loving kiss to our honor that had long been hidden, since then it has been brightly exalted by mankind.

That North-American nation that won admiration on that Saturday night was then filled with honor, on the following Sunday morning everyone was fully awakened to the disgraceful ugliness that they all have looked down on, the inability to learn to respect widely-known reason and to restrain the intense appetite for greed.

That great Republic of the United States, that has been ridiculed by all on its heights of regency since that Saturday night when it impudently killed our newly-established and still infant Republic, continued to descend to the derisive valley of the red masses that are now surrounding it.

It [United States] smudged its honorable history, and replaced it with the shameful title conqueror.

Philippines! Aside from the mentioned decisive victory, prepare yourself to embrace a chain of celebrations that will be lovingly granted to you by heaven.

This event clearly declared you the victor.

The day when the American finds little match [against the Filipino] is also the day of his last jutted vainglory; the day of his extreme sorrow; the day of ruin of all that he has amassed; and the day of partitioning of the proud and vast lands that he has slowly sustained among all Nations.

On the other hand, the day when he cannot conquer; the day when we subdue him; the day when he exhausts under the scorching heat of our sun; the day when their soldiers perish of disease owing to their unfamiliarity of the vapours/steams of our lands and are thus withdrawn from fighting, is also the day of his humiliation by the whole world; the day of great disgrace and the day of incomprehensible misfortune.

The American does not expect that a newly-established Republic would oppose him.

It is far from his imagination that he will be surprised, so he impudently charged at us without looking back.

Therefore, when he realized that we do not allow him to invade us so easily, and we are not even slightly frightened of his power, his will began to muddle and meander, and now he does not know where to fumble; and he keeps on sending us envoys so he can withdraw even for a while.

His involvement is confused and has no proper recourse.

The American does not expect that an inexperienced people, a Republic newly built would bring him much ruin.

Forthrightly repay their treachery!

So push forward, my brothers!

Push forward to victory!



patricia magpayo

Published under the Supervision of Mr. Z. Fajardo

Now turn to:   Col. A. B. Welch’s diary of his participation in the Philippines Insurrection 1898-1899